What Others Say?
In the first meeting of Affective Education for 21st Century course, we were introduced to another domain of learning that used to be considered last in the teaching learning process; the affective domain. There are 3 important parts (or I may say keywords) of the course: affective, instruction and 21st century learning. Based on Prof. Pannen’s explanation, affective part’s scope includes affective skills, competences, learning, objectives, and domain. The second keyword means everything happens in between of teaching and learning like strategies, methods, and the way teacher delivers her/ his materials. The last part which is 21st century learning refers to what time context we learn the course. This also refers to demanded skills and competency standards, related to affective, in this era.
Krathwohl (1964) describes affective learning as a learning that is demonstrated by behaviors indicating attitudes of awareness, interest, attention, concern, and responsibility, ability to listen and respond in interactions with others, and ability to demonstrate those attitudinal characteristics or values which are appropriate to the test situation and the field of study. He also made taxonomy that known worldwide as Krathwohl’s taxonomy of affective domain. The taxonomy is ordered according to the principle of internalization. Internalization refers to the process whereby a person’s affect toward an object passes from a general awareness level to a point where the affect is ‘internalized’ and consistently guides or controls the person’s behavior (Seels & Glasgow, 1990)
There are 5 levels or steps in the taxonomy. The first level of the taxonomy is Receiving. It refers to the student’s willingness to attend to particular phenomena of stimuli. The example of student’s behavior when they are reaching this step is when students are listening to discussions of controversial issues with an open mind. The second one is Responding. This step refers to active participation on the part of the student. At this level he or she not only attends to a particular phenomenon but also reacts to it in some way. The example is when the students participate in a group discussion on a certain topic. The third level is Valuing that refers to willingness to be perceived by others as valuing certain ideas, materials, or phenomena. It showed by the students when they show their ability in solving problems or demonstrates their belief in a democratic process. Next step is Organization. It is concerned with bringing together different values, resolving conflicts between students, and beginning the building of an internally consistent value system. For instance when students recognize own abilities, limitations, and values and developing realistic aspirations.
What I say?
When I heard about Affective Education for 21st Century for the first time, I thought the course will be mainly about what kind of education that effective for 21st century. I thought the students will be asked to discuss and propose a solution of affective education along the way on the course. Even though revealed that it is not, I do not sorry.
Affective education, after I attended the first meeting, for me is a very powerful learning domain that sometimes can exceed cognitive and psychomotor area because it is dealing with heart, emotion, and mood. Especially since our future students are adolescent that mostly in the stage of identity vs role confusion of Erikson’s stages. They have storm and stress phase that can influence their affective domain. Affective instructions will define students’ act, motivation, point of view in seeing the world, etc. From what I have experienced, there are not many Indonesian ‘regular’ schools that have really applied affective education. They always focus on how to get their students pass the tests like UN and SNMPTN. Sometimes the teacher do ‘whatever’ it takes to reach that goal, even things that opposing affective education. Here, many schools give affective education separately from other subjects and put the responsibility to one or two budi pekerti teacher. I think that is silly. It seems to imply that math, physics and language have nothing to do with values, manner, and motivation. It also feels like not every teacher that has to be affectively involved with their students, we only need one (or two) instead. No wonder why there are so many smart and skilled people who try to own the whole world for themselves. This is something that we need to improve about our education.
On the other hand, affective education should include how each student does their daily life. We will not teach them, we show it to them. As teachers, I think the best affective education that we can teach has to come from our selves. We need to demonstrate it so that they will imitate it and apply it in their life. That is why affective education just very important.